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In Georgia, for example, around there were large areas of bare ground associated with cotton fields and other crops. By the late s, most of Georgia over 70 percent had reverted to pine and deciduous forests once cotton was no longer farmed due to the boll weevil beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers and soil degradation.
6 Interesting Facts About Boll Weevil Control (12222)
Some climatologists think that the slight cooling of the Southeast over the s may have been due in part to the higher evapotranspiration and cooler conditions associated with forests compared to bare ground in cropland. Figure B.
Land use in the Southeast. The lack of vegetation means there is no transpiration to cool the air. The concrete and asphalt release their heat slowly at night, too, leading to warmer conditions overnight as well as during the day. Figure A displays different types of land use for the entire United States in Farmers are responsible for maintaining a majority of the cropland vegetation in arable regions of the world. Vegetation or the lack of it is a key factor affecting weather patterns and micro-climates. The following factors are affected by vegetation:.
Vegetation: Its Role in Weather and Climate | North Carolina Climate Office
Figure C. Bradford pear orchard. Image from Bridget Lassiter. When irrigation is taken out of the equation, rain, snow, fog, dew, frost and soil water are all used and captured by vegetation. This in turn causes evaporative cooling in the atmosphere directly surrounding the crop. There are also daily variations in CO 2 , with the highest levels measured during the day.
Most individual leaves have an albedo of about 0. For a crop of 1m in height, the surface albedo is between 0. However, this value is dependent upon the vegetation type.
If leaves are wilted, or if the soil is exposed beneath the canopy this value can be different. Also, this albedo measurement is the one taken at mid-day.
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- Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. LXVIII, Sept. 1910 The New York Tunnel Extension of the Pennsylvania Railroad, The North River Division. Paper No. 1151.
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Early morning and late day measurements of albedo are much higher and the values follow the position of the sun in the sky. In one embodiment this invention is directed to a method and apparatus for collecting or trapping boll weevils.
In another embodiment this invention is useful for surveying land areas, particularly land areas planted for the growing of cotton to determine locations where boll weevils may be present. In still another embodiment this invention is directed to a method employing a boll weevil trap as described herein to concentrate boll weevils in a particular area so that the boll weevil as a pest can more readily be combatted.
The boll weevil has been described as being the most costly insect in the history of American agriculture. Losses in cotton production due to the boll weevil are estimated to average hundreds of millions of dollars annually and to prevent even greater losses cotton growers spend tens of millions of dollars each year on chemical pesticides for the control of the boll weevil, see U.
Various techniques have been proposed for the better utilization of the chemical pesticides used to combat the boll weevil and various techniques have been proposed for combatting or irradicating the boll weevil. One technique proposed for combatting the boll weevil involves the use of the male boll weevil aggregating pheromone known as grandlure. In this technique an early planting of cotton in selected areas is carried out and material containing the male boll weevil aggregating pheromone, grandlure, is placed at these locations so as to attract and concentrate the boll weevil.
Thereupon after a sufficient period of time to attract the boll weevil has elapsed, these crops are chemically treated with boll weevil pesticides so as to destroy the boll weevil. Thereupon, regular planting of the cotton crop is commenced. This technique of combatting the boll weevil is known as the "trap plot" technique, see the article by Scott et al entitled "Trapping Boll Weevils," published Journal of Economic Entomology, pages , Apr.
The disclosures of the above-identified publications are herein incorporated and made part of this disclosure. For the most part, however, the apparatus and methods employed heretofore for combatting the boll weevil have not been completely successful. How these and other objects of this invention are achieved will become apparent in the light of the accompanying disclosure made with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:.
The boll weevil trap in accordance with this invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Referring now to the drawings, there is illustrated therein, see FIG. As illustrated in the drawings the boll weevil trap comprises a substantially frustum shape or truncated conical shape support member 10 to which is releasably affixed to a substantially conical shape or funnel shape guiding member 11, as illustrated, in inverted position, with the narrow or smaller opening 11b of guiding member 11 protruding into trapping or collecting member 12 of generally bulbous or spherical shape.
Desirably, support member 10 is painted or colored daylight fluorescent yellow since that color tends to attract boll weevils.
Guiding means or element 11 and trapping or collecting means or element 12 are preferably made of transparent plastic material, as illustrated. Trapping or collecting means 12 is provided with perforations 12a, as illustrated, to prevent the build-up of air pressure therein when the trap is exposed to sunlight. Similarly, guiding means 11 is provided with perforations 11a to better permit release of any hot air from the inside thereof. Perforations 11a and 12a are desirably smaller than the boll weevil to prevent the escape of the boll weevil through these perforations.
If desired, support member 10 may be similarly perforated. In accordance with one embodiment of the invention material 14 containing the male boll weevil aggregating pheromone, grandlure, is provided within trapping or collecting means 12, as illustrated in FIG. In use, the boll weevil trap as assembled and illustrated in FIG. The boll weevils would be attracted thereto by the bright daylight fluorescent yellow color of support 10 as well as by the molecules of the vaporized male boll weevil aggregating pheromone, grandlure, emanating from collecting or trapping means 12 via perforations 12a.
As the boll weevils are attracted to the trap the boll weevils, because of their inherent biological characteristic of moving positively geotropically or upwardly along a surface, would move upwardly on the outside surface of support means 10 and within the annular space provided between the outside of support means 10 and the inside surface of guiding means 11 and then along the inside surface of guiding means or element 11 and through small narrow funnel opening 11b thereof into trapping means The annular space defined by the outside of support means 10 and the inside of guiding means 11 is provided by protuberances 15 provided on the upper end of support means The upper end of protuberances 15 are provided with beveled edges 15a.
A circular, peripheral groove 11d is provided on the inside of guiding means 11 and guiding means 11 is detachably fixed to the upper end of support means 10 by pressing the large lower open end 11c of guiding means 11 onto support means 10 until circular groove 11d of guiding means 11 snaps onto protruding beveled surfaces 15a of protuberances 15 at the upper portion of support means As the boll weevils move upwardly within the inside surface of guiding means 11 eventually the boll weevils exit the upper end of guiding means 11 via small opening 11b therein, guiding means 11 being substantially funnel shaped.
As illustrated in the drawings, see particularly FIGS. Since opening 11b is relatively small with respect to the volume of the space within bulbous collecting or trapping means 12 and since desirably there is present therein the male boll weevil aggregating pheromone, grandlure, the boll weevils entering trapping element 12 via opening 11b of guiding means 11 would congregate therein and, in effect, be trapped.
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